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Notes from RAW 101 Free In store Training June 25 7pm

Hand-outs from our free workshop series

Raw 101 Lecture doc.

1) why raw?
Dry Dog Food Is Dead Food
While other dog food experts talk about the pitfalls of kibble and other processed pet foods – such as by-products, diseased animals and inferior ingredients – I think that all pales in comparison.
The biggest problem with dry dog food is that it’s dead.
The one common denominator that nearly every kibble shares, regardless of the quality of ingredients that go into it – is that by the time they’re heated and processed, there are no longer any living enzymes and nutrients are diminished and very little of it is bio-recognizable.
How Dog Food Processing Destroys Nutrition
In case you don’t know, this is how kibble is manufactured.
The raw ingredients of kibble get mixed up in a giant grinder. Many of the foods that are added, such as the grains or meat meals, have already been heated and processed before they’re added to the kibble. Then the entire batch is heated and steamed again, then pushed through a giant screw called an extruder, where it’s once again heated, then it’s sent to an oven to dry where it’s once again heated.
Then a coating with fats in it is sprayed on the food to coax your dog or cat into eating it. It’s packaged and sent off to stores.
It’s important to note that most of the ingredients in your dog’s kibble are heated and processed four times before they hit the bag.
Why does this matter? Because heating and processing destroy the nutrients in the food.
You don’t feed your dog every day to just fill his stomach. The food he eats must contain the nutrients he needs to not just survive, but to feed all the cells in his body so they don’t break down.

Any nutritional deficiencies will suppress your dog’s immune function and his organs will start to fail because their cells can no longer support them. Chronic inflammation, as well as liver, kidney, heart, thyroid and other diseases will begin to appear. Proper nutrition is vital to your dog’s health and longevity. But heating and processing destroy the nutrients he depends on.
On average, nearly half the nutrition is cooked out of your dog’s food every time it’s heated. And most of the ingredients are heated four times before the food sits on a shelf for weeks or months, waiting to get eaten.
How Pet Food Manufacturers Manage this
Clearly, dogs can’t live on nutrient depleted food for very long. They’ll soon develop chronic diseases.
A manganese deficiency will cause ACL tears, nerve and connective tissue dysfunction.
An iodine deficiency will cause obesity, aggression and chronic infections.
A zinc deficiency will cause heart disease, GI and skin issues and blindness.
Get the idea?
The pet food manufacturers know this. They know their foods are deficient if left as is, so they do something to compensate for the deficiency … they add vitamins and minerals to the food.
Now you might be thinking that’s a good thing, now we’re even Steven. But there’s a problem with those vitamins and minerals: They’re fake. They’re synthetic nutrition.
Vitamins are not food. They’re chemical isolates or fractionated pieces of vitamins that are made in a lab owned by a pharmaceutical company that’s usually located in China. Today, China manufactures 90% of our vitamin C and the majority of our other vitamins. And their track record when it comes to food safety is not so good.
Real Food Vs Fake Food
Vitamins are defined as a GROUP or complex of organic compounds – their activity is the sum of all of their parts.
But synthetic vitamins are different. A synthetic vitamin is just a fraction of what would be found in a naturally occurring vitamin. It’s missing the important cofactors that make it work.
And research on synthetic vitamins shows this to be true.
In 1942, authors in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that treating scurvy with 50cc of lemon juice, which contains 25 mg of ascorbic acid produced quicker results than 25 mg of ascorbic acid given as a vitamin. They also noted “These vitamins have to be administered every day in order to be efficacious” and “there exists an antagonism among the different artificial vitamins.”

But if your dog eats kibble, he relies on those synthetic vitamins for most of his nutrition because most of them have been processed out of his food.
And here’s another problem … synthetic vitamins can be unpredictable and can even cause an increased risk of cancer and other health issues.
For example natural vitamin A begins in food as a natural chemical constituent called beta-carotene. The body must convert it into vitamin A to be useful. Vitamin A can be toxic in large doses. Beta-carotene or provitamin A is a precursor that allows the body to convert only what it needs, and to clear what it doesn’t.
This is a natural safeguard against excesses and toxic damage … but it only works if the beta-carotene is from a whole food source, complete with it’s cofactors.
The Beta-carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial in 1996 is a good example of the potential unpredictability of synthetic vitamins. In this study, they tested the effect of Beta-carotene and retinyl plamitate on the incidence of cancer and death. They followed nearly 20,000 participants who were at high risk for lung cancer, such as smokers and asbestos workers, and they began the study in 1988, intending to run until 1997. But the study was halted in 1996, 21 months ahead of schedule, because there was no evidence the vitamins helped.
In fact, there was a substantial increase in cancer, heart disease. We Deserve Better.

There’s a saying in the pet food industry and I believe it to be true. It goes something like “You can make a bag of sand pass AAFCO standards if you add the right premix (a bag of synthetic vitamins and minerals) to it.”
A bag of dead food, fortified with fake vitamins and minerals. And as long as those vitamins meet the minimum standards set by AAFCO, it’s deemed 100% balanced and complete nutrition.
AAFCO doesn’t care that your dog is relying on synthetic nutrition for his health. And until recently, nobody has seemed to care that this hasn’t been working out so well.
Despite their terrible track record, pet food manufacturers today are still relying on synthetic vitamins to boost their foods with artificial nutrition.

Raw Food, Not To Be Feared
Level headed professionals do not attack raw pet food with fear mongering.
According to the all-knowing authorities in the 1960s, butter would kill you and margarine would prevent death by butter. Today, exactly the opposite is known to be true. Butter is a rich source of anti-cancer nutrients, while margarine is proven to be full of carcinogens. Simple total blood cholesterol is now understood to predict nothing, but for decades entire societies remade themselves at the altar of cholesterol & those who thought they knew it all. -R.S.Patton

Raw food, human or pet, may be a vector for pathogens, but it can also be a vector of beneficial bacteria, undamaged vitamins and enzymes, higher palatability and greater digestibility!
Proper food handling is imperative for any raw meat.
The Top 5 Benefits of Raw Food For Dogs
A trial, conducted by the largest veterinary laboratory in the world, compared hundreds of raw food for dogs with dry dog food. This trial found that dogs fed fresh meat are significantly healthier than dry fed dogs (ANTECH 2003), immunologically speaking. The following, is just some of the benefits gained from changing a dogs diet to a raw meat diet.
1 Coat Condition
The first physical change will be in the coat. Up to 40% of the protein a dog eats goes into their skin and coat! Thus when a dog is fed a low meat protein, cereal based diet (most dry foods) they will not have the protein spare to grow a healthy coat. In general raw dog food is high in fresh meat (protein) and fresh fat, which work together to fuel a luxurious coat
2 Muscle Tone
Allbe them opportune-istic, scavenger-istic, omnivore-istic carnivores, dogs are carnivores: meaning all they really need to eat is protein, bone and fat. And cats surely are carnivores. When fed this diet, they will shed the carbohydrate-fueled fat to reveal their beautiful, sleek, firm body. Raw food for dogs is nearly always void of cereal filler (carbohydrates) which is central to getting a dogs weight and muscle tone right.
Can you imagine a guy going to the gym to bulk up on a diet of 50% bread? Protein is the building blocks of muscle, organs, skin, hair and joints. There is no alternative.
3 Dental Hygiene
Cutting out dry kibble and offering a dog some meat on the bone improves dental hygiene and reduces bad breath. 9out of 10 dry fed dogs suffer gum disease by 2 years of age.
Unfortunately, the fact that dogs have no amylase in their saliva (it breaks down carbohydrate sugars in the mouth), means that the sugars in these dry food products fuel bacteria growth leading to poor dental health and hygiene like plaque, tartar, calculus, gingivitis, periodontal disease. Put simply, dogs need fresh meaty bones to clean their teeth, not cooked, raw. We’ll talk about how to feed bones later I tonight’s course.

4 Behavior
The improvement in behavior from raw dog food is primarily due to the removal of the dry food from the diet.
Dry feeds fuel poor behavior in three ways:
1. It is high in easily digested carbohydrates, which fuel high blood sugar and insulin levels, long linked to poor behavior.
2. It is full of chemicals that we really don’t know how affects the neurology or endocrinology of a dog
3. it has a low vitamin B content (the mind soothing vitamins), and the B vitamins are very sensitive to storage.
5 Poop
Then there’s feces! The stool is the window of digestion. As fresh food is easier to digest than cooked food, it leads to improved digestion, meaning less feces. Stools from raw dog food also smell nothing like the stools from dry dog food, are quite hard & dry.

commercially prepared options:
pate, nibblets, cubes, medallions, bars, patties, chubs, bricks
quality, pathogen management, packaging, ratios
2) how to transition
How to Make the Transition to a Raw Food Diet
Practical information to switch your dog to a raw dog food diet
Basic Principles
Every dog is unique and there is no single “one size fits all” approach to transitioning your dog
from kibble (dry processed nuggets) to a more natural, holistic, raw meat-based diet.
There are, however, some basic principles and techniques that apply in most cases:
a. Be positive. Dogs and cats are very sensitive and can sense any apprehensions or
    skepticism you may be feeling about feeding raw food.
   Being confident will reassure your pet about your choice to change to a new diet.
b. The longer the dog has been eating kibble,
   the longer you should take to transition to the new diet.
c. While variety is the key to outstanding health when feeding a fresh,
  raw meat-based diet, it’s best to start with one type of meat during your transition
  (preferably the same meat type you are currently feeding).
  This will make it easier on your dog’s digestive system.
d. some owners start by replacing their dogs treats with fresh raw meat in order to stimulate drive for the food and see how the animal will be effected.
e. Fast your dog the night before beginning its transition.
   Your dog will have a greater interest in the new food the next morning and
   this also gives their digestive system a chance to rest.
f. Limit treats during the transition in order to increase your dog’s appetite for its meals.
g.  Provide access to plenty of clean water

actually making the switch
Begin by simply substituting 1/8 of your dogs’ meal with raw for 2 days
Then ¼ of the meal with raw for 2 days
If all is going well move up to half and half old food to new food.
Stay here until you’re confident in your dogs’ desire to enjoy the new food.
When your both ready move on to ¾ new & ¼ raw
And so on until you blend out the old kibble.
There are times when a complete cold turkey switch has its place however.

3) when to transition
1)      When the dog’s old food is poisoning him. In this case we recommend resting the GI tract for a day, feeding a soothing warm bone broth for a day and then onto raw at ½ ration for the first day back to eating

2)      When the commercial dog kibble industry is driving you stark raving mad and your fed up.

3)      Puppies can be weaned right onto raw

4)      Every pet owner will have their own very personal reasons for switching.

5)      When NOT to switch: if your going to be out of town, away from your pet, going through a life change. If you are new to raw feeding wait until you have some predictability in your schedule and mood.
4) How much to feed?
As a result of the increased digestibility of a raw-food diet, you are able to feed your pet less food daily. Our suggestion is to feed your pet based on the 2% rule. Feed 2% of your pet's body weight daily for 1 5 days and then evaluate it’s body condition. We recommend feeding your pet twice daily, so you should divide the total daily feeding weight in half and feed once in the morning and once in the evening. Or by however many times a day you feel you need to feed your pet.
Feeding Percentages
1.5% Weight Loss
2.0% Non-Active
2.5% Maintain Weight
3.0% Slight Weight Gain
3.5% Significant Weight Gain
4.0% Kittens/Puppies (12 weeks-1 year)
4.5-8.0% Kittens/Puppies (4-12 weeks)      Note the Variables!
4.0-8.0% Pregnant/Lactating
Puppies: As your pet grows, weigh your pet frequently so the feeding calculator will generate an accurate feeding amount based on your pet's current weight.
*Puppies and Kittens
For puppies and kittens, we recommend a feeding percentage of 6% to start. Adjust the feeding percentage up or down as necessary according to their growth.
Don’t forget to Feel your pet every day, look for a waistline, can you feel the ribs? Are the hip bones too pronounced? Or just right? What type of day have you got planned? Cross country skiing or couch surfing? Adjust as needed and use that evening meal as your “balancer” if need be after a day of excessive treats or otherwise. Calories in  -vs- calories out.
6) Bones
In order to understand the nutrition bones provide to pets, it's first necessary to nail down exactly what we're talking about when it comes to bones.
Raw bones contain marrow within them. Marrow is comprised primarily of fat and blood components, which are high quality nutrients – just not nutrients provided by the bone itself.
There is also cartilage attached to raw bones. It is connective tissue composed of about 50 percent collagen and mucopolysaccharides (chains of glucose molecules combined with mucous).

According to Miller's Anatomy of The Dog, 2nd Edition:
"Actual Bone is about one third organic and two thirds inorganic material. The inorganic matrix of bone has a microcrystalline structure composed principally of calcium phosphate."

…So, bone is composed primarily of calcium phosphate. Calcium and phosphorus ratios and total amounts in a pet's diet are important. The ideal total amount of calcium in dog food is 1.0 to 1.8 percent of the dry weight of the food.
There are two types of raw bones you can feed your pet as part of a healthy raw diet:
Edible bones : the hollow, non-weight-bearing bones of birds (typically chicken backs, wings and chicken, turkey, and duck necks). They are soft, pliable, don't contain much if any marrow, and can be easily crushed in a meat grinder, or chewed up readily & happily by larger dogs. These bones provide calcium, phosphorus and trace minerals to a raw food diet. Other options are whole raw fish like an 8” long sardine, or a portion of a “feeder” rabbit. Some dogs do very well with meaty lamb trotters (the small long leg bones of lambs with all the meat & sinew till on them)
Recreational bones are the big beef or bison femur or hip bones and knuckle bones filled with marrow. They don't supply a lot of nutrition because they’re meant to be aggressively gnawed on, and not much of them actually gets ingested except the yummy marrow.  They provide great mental stimulation and oral health benefits.
When your dog chews on a raw recreational bone, especially a meaty one with cartilage and soft tissue still attached, his teeth get the equivalent of a good brushing and flossing. This helps to break down tartar and reduces the risk of gum disease. Also, a dog’s large neck muscles get a good work out.
That being said, keep in mind there is some basic information you should know about prior to offering recreational bones:
I tell people to match the size bone offered to your dog's head. Dogs can't be given a bone that's too big, but they can be given a bone that is too small. Bones that are too small can be choking hazards and cause significant oral trauma.
•             Be aware of any pancreatic issues and that excess marrow can cause diarrhea
•             Always supervise dogs when you've given them raw bones for the first time.
•             we recommend separating even the best of dog friends when offering raw bones.
•             NOTE: Recreational bones do not supply adequate calcium for homemade meals that don't contain edible bones or bone meal.
6) Tripe
Tripe is the stomach of a ruminating (grazing) animal. These animals have unique four chamber stomachs full of digestive enzymes to break down the grass they eat with ease. The natural probiotics found here in the stomach also make excellent digestion aids for our pets. By adding raw green tripe (not to be confused with bleached, or white tripe found in some grocery stores)
to a pet’s healthy diet, we’re providing them with gastric juices and enzymes to assist in digesting their meals and allowing them to efficiently utilize the nutrients in their food.
•A natural probiotic and digestion aid
•Contains enzymes that help purify the blood, remove toxins, parasites and fungus, and digest carbohydrates
•Boosts metabolism, hormonal function and the immune system
•Excellent for sensitive stomachs and allergy prone pets
•Add tripe for easy diet transitioning
•A training treat
•Cats like it too
·         Whiter teeth and healthy gums
·         Improved skin
·         Helps with allergies
·         Improves digestive and kidney issues
·         Due to the low phosphorus and high palatability, tripe is a great food for dogs suffering from renal failure
A word of warning: tripe really stinks!  The good news is that you can get all the benefits of raw tripe in a freeze dried form without the smell! Simply use it as a topper on their normal diets
7) Trachea
Feeding Trachea to dogs
TRACHEA : Glucosamine is one of the major building blocks utilized in the body’s synthesis of the lubricants and shock absorbing mechanisms necessary to maintain and restore healthy joint performance. Glucosamine supplementation enhances the body’s ability to manufacture collagen and proteoglycans, which are essential for rebuilding joints and supporting synovial fluid which lubricates your joints. Glucosamine supplementation is especially important in vaccinated dogs as they develop antibodies to their own collagen (see The Purdue Study results). Collagen is a protein found in fibrous tissues such as tendon, ligament and skin, and is also abundant in the cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, the gut, and intervertebral discs and especially the TRACHEA!
When considering glucosamine supplementation, it is important to consider bioavailability:
 just how much of the supplement is useable by the dog?
 Bioavailability is one reason why raw feeding is a great option for dogs.
There are many naturally occurring and reliable sources of glucosamine in the connective tissue and bone marrow of animals – and in shellfish exoskeletons. When considering raw meals for your dogs, remember that animal parts with lots of bone and joints will be an excellent source of naturally occurring glucosamine. Supplementing with beef trachea, chicken feet and bone marrow will make sure that your dog is getting enough glucosamine in his diet.  One daily portion a day of any of these glucosamine rich items will sufficiently support your dog’s needs.
Further supplementation can be provided through meaty, sinewy raw bones, chicken necks, or 6-12” chunks of trachea either raw or freeze dried fed as treats approx. 3x  a week.
Ground Trachea is available at Bridger Animal Nutrition in 2lb chubs

Closing and Open floor for Questions